Total and Exchangeable Metals in Groundwater of Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria

  • J. A.O. Oyekunle
  • R. C. Okpu
  • A. O. Ogunfowokan
  • G. O. Olutona
  • L. M. Durosinmi
Keywords: Groundwater, heavy metals, ion-exchange chromatography, Ile-Ife, Nigeria


The groundwater samples of Ile-Ife obtained from ten different locations were analysed for their total and exchangeable heavy metals in order to determine their potability status. Water samples collected for two months were analyzed for pH, conductivity, temperature, total and exchangeable heavy metal values using standard methods. The ion exchange chromatographic extraction of the exchangeable metals was carried out with anionic trimethylhyroxyammonium resin. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer analysis for total and exchangeable Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Mn was performed. The mean pH, conductivity and temperature values, measured insitu, were 6.0 ± 0.5, 340 ± 244 µS/cm and 27.5 ± 0.3oC respectively. Total mean levels (µg/mL) of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Mn were 8.275 ± 0.912, 0.179 ± 0.041, 31.858 ± 3.635, 0.090 ± 0.010 and 76.789 ± 12.889 respectively while 1.484 ± 0.228, 0.040 ± 0.008, 5.911 ± 1.002, 0.017 ± 0.003 and 20.151 ± 5.845 (µg/mL) were detected as the respective mean values (µg/mL) of the exchangeable metal fraction in the samples. Comparing the levels of heavy metals in the samples to the WHO provision for drinking water, the groundwater was capable of constituting serious health hazards.


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